Close
    IoT_Microgrid_labor...

    Two appliances in the IoT Microgrid Laboratory have a built-in Wi-Fi connection. An oven and a refrigerator. Provided by the manufacturer Gorenje, these appliances are Wi-Fi enabled appliances and connect to a cloud service. This cloud service can be used for querying information on the status of the appliances such as working mode, temperature, events like door openings and send commands as changing the temperature reference or the working mode remotely.

    Two appliances, a washing machine and a dishwasher have both electrical and cold-water consumption. The electrical consumption is monitored by the smart plugs associated with the appliances. However, to record the water demand of these two appliances a closed water circuit installation was developed. The system is based on a water tank, a pump and a pressurised tank, which the particularity that a Wireless M-Bus water meter is installed in series. In this way, real-time water flow measurements can be acquired in the central system.

    Small kitchen appliances are proliferating in modern households. They generally have a sporadic usage, highly linked to consumer habits. However, their power demand can be significant in a very short period of time. Establishing adequate management strategies for these appliances can help reduce the peak consumption in households. To evaluate that our IoT Microgrid laboratory is equipped with different small kitchen appliances such a microwave, a toaster, a coffee maker and a kettle.

    This device integrates an advanced metering system with a relay for the actuation, and it is similar to the smart plugs but with a different form factor. It allows for the control of different loads in the house while monitoring their consumption. Its main features are: - Loads up to 16 A - Active, reactive and apparent power measurements - Voltage, current and frequency measurements - Zigbee HA certified.

    This device integrates an advanced metering system with a relay for the actuation and is similar to the smart cable but with the possibility of integrating it directly in the plug. It allows for the control of different loads in the house while monitoring their consumption. Its main features are: - Loads up to 10 A with a peak of 16 A under 15 mins - Active, reactive and apparent power measurements - Voltage, current and frequency measurements - Zigbee HA certified.

    This sensor allows for the detection of smoke in the kitchen area triggering an acoustic alarm. It is manufactured by the Danish company Develco and has the following features: - Optical sensor for smoke detection - Temperature sensor up to 0.1-degree resolution - Zigbee HA certified.

    The Demand Response (DR) system is one of the core management components of the house. It implements so far two types of control scenarios named as automatic and on-demand. The automatic control is triggered every time a new incoming sensor data is notified. Subsequently, the appliances associated with that sensor, by means of the room concept, go through the algorithmic process deciding if any action should be taken. On the other hand, on-demand control is only executed when a change of status is detected in a Smart Plug or Relay. After this, the measures of the sensors associated with the appliance are retrieved from the context broker and the DR algorithms executed. The available algorithms are as follows: - Temperature: An appliance is controlled by a temperature sensor located in the same room. The parameters reference temperature, hysteresis level and type of appliance (heating or cooling) must be provided. - Occupancy: A motion sensor controls the state of an appliance in a room. A timeout attribute is included to delay the disconnection after the absence of occupancy. - Luminosity: The level of available daylight controls the switch on/off events of the appliance. As in the temperature case, a reference level value and a hysteresis range need to be defined. - Scheduling: An appliance can be set to be activated between a certain period. The attributes initial time and final time define the active period. - Power & Priority: A set of appliances can be linked to an energy source and controlled according to a power threshold and their priority. In this way, when the maximum power limit is surpassed, loads with low priority are disconnected. Each load is assigned with a priority as indicated in the figure and an estimated average power for the decision process. This second parameter avoids false disconnections or connections due to appliances with variable power cycles. In addition, each appliance includes a waiting flag that indicates if the load was disconnected for having less priority than other, and a reconnection flag that indicates if the load can be turned on again when the power is back to normal limits.

    The monitoring, control and configuration interfaces are developed based on internet technologies and web services, therefore, they can be flexibly accessed from any type of device. As a matter of fact, a tablet is used as the main configuration and control interface with the user, where they can visualise the historical records, turn on and off appliances and tune the control parameters for the demand response algorithms.