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Tellurion A tellurion is a mechanical device constructed to demonstrate the rotation of the earth around its axis, the rotation of the moon around the earth and the rotation of both celestial bodies around the sun. When the candle on the tellurion is lit, the metal plate will reflect light onto the globe. The celestial bodies of the tellurion are set into motion by turning the crank. The earth will then rotate around its axis and around the sun (the candle), and the moon will rotate around the earth. As they do, it becomes evident that the four seasons are caused by the rotation and orientation of the earth around its axis and by its orbit around the sun. The months are engraved into a plate under the candle. The tellurion was used to explain seasonal changes and also the principles of solar and lunar eclipses. The best place to use a tellurion is in a dark room. It is then quite easy to observe how sunlight affects the planets. The tellurion in the picture was used in Tuv School in the village of Yttermalax. It was made in the 1890's by Ernst Schotte & Co in Berlin, Germany. Brinken Museum

Slate The slate was used to practice writing. Made of rock also called slate, it came encased in a wooden frame. A special slate pencil was used to write on the slate. The pencil, too, was made of slate, only of softer slate than the writing pad itself. Later, slate pencils were replaced by pieces of chalk. When the slate was full, it was wiped clean using a rabbit's paw. Slates were commonly used in schools well into the 20th century. Brinken Museum

Doll and bed Children have played with dolls for thousands of years. The earliest dolls were made of readily available materials such as cloth, wood, bone or leather. In the 19th century, factory-made dolls with porcelain heads and cloth torsos could be bought, but home-made ragdolls remained popular well into the 20th century. Ragdolls were made of left-over pieces of cloth, and they were often stuffed with any soft material available in the home. The doll in the picture was made by Edith Lind, when she attended the 3rd grade of Långmossa School in 1930–31. Textile handicraft was on the curriculum, and the 4th grade pupils of elementary school were expected to make a doll complete with bed linen and a blanket. Edith did all this a year earlier, as a third-grader. She made the doll and all its clothes, as well as the bed linen and the blanket. The bed is a tiny replica of beds commonly found in farm houses all around the region. In Swedish, this type of bed was known as a “fölåtansienje”, a curtain bed. The bed has been donated to the museum by Eva Ekblad. It originally belonged to Eva's mother, who presumably played with it in the early 1900's. Brinken Museum

Toy horse Toys were often made at home using readily available materials such as wood, pieces of cloth, clay, etc. The children often made the toys themselves, sometimes with the help of an adult. The horse on wheels was made by Emil Lind, who gave it to his daughter Ethel (whose married name was Helenelund), probably as a Christmas present. The horse was made around 1933. Brinken Museum

School books Spelling books, the Catechism explaining the ten commandments and the heroic poem Fänrik Ståls Sägner (The Tales of Ensign Stål) by Johan Ludvig Runeberg, the Finnish national poet, were commonly used in schools. Children were expected to learn quite a number of the poems from The Tales of Ensign Stål by heart. Boken om vårt land by Zacharias Topelius – a book describing Finland historically, geographically, ethnically and culturally – was commonly used to teach biology, geography and history. Writing books, songbooks and arithmetic books were used as well. Granösund Fishing Museum

Abacus The abacus, also known as a counting frame, is a calculating tool used to teach the four rules of arithmetic. The abacus is a wooden frame with wires on which wooden beads can be slid back and forth. Each bead represents a sum. On the first wire, at the bottom of the abacus, the bead represents “1”. On the second wire, a bead is the equivalent of “10”. On the third, it is “100”, etc. An abacus can be used for quite sizable calculations, up to the sum of ten billion. The abacus in the picture belongs to Övermalax School.

School posters School posters were quite important for the tuition. School books were almost never illustrated, but through the posters, the children could catch a glimpse of foreign countries, learn of animals and plants, experience historical events and learn tales from the Bible, etc. Brinken Museum

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