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Dead wood: This debris left on the ground after harvest can include unused logs, uprooted stumps, broken tops, etc. Dead wood provides important habitat for animals and growing sites for plants, and debris like branches and broken tops contain seed sources like pine cones.

Snag: Standing dead tree often used by birds for nesting, or by wildlife for shelter. They are also a source of food for insects like carpenter ants.

Clumped (aggregate) retention: A large patch of live, standing trees left within a harvest block to retain seed sources, shelter and habitat connectivity for plants, animals and insects.

Dispersed retention: Single, or groups of live, standing trees left within a harvest block to create structural diversity, maintain ecosystem processes and biodiversity.

Natural regeneration: Regrowth by natural as opposed to human means. Seeds that fall from trees at the forest edge, underground roots that send up new shoots, or seeds brought in by wind, birds, or animals can all help trees regrow naturally.

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