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    Photo 1282_gpr Photo 1283_gpr 85 - Gallery 2 - p1

    **BIRTH OF AMAUTA** “I arrived from Europe with the purpose of establishing a magazine.” This is how José Carlos Mariátegui described his return to Perú in 1923, after three years abroad. This section of the exhibition explores Mariátegui’s contacts with the European avant-gardes, the enduring friendships that he established while traveling, and the process of development of *Amauta* as an influential publication. Mariátegui’s travels helped define his perspective on the art of his time. Based in Italy and Germany, he traveled through Europe investigating recent cultural and political developments. In Italy he became friends with the Argentine painter Emilio Pettoruti, visited the biennials of Rome and Venice, frequented the Casa d’Arte Bragaglia in Milan, and compiled an important collection of publications on art. In Berlin, he became interested in the work of German artist Georg Grosz, was exposed to European avant-garde movements such as Constructivism and Dadaism, and closely followed the exhibitions at the Der Sturm gallery. By the time Mariátegui returned to Peru, he was probably one of the most well-informed Latin Americans about European modern art. A few months later, he began to advertise for a magazine he planned to publish under the name *Vanguardia* [Vanguard]. Although this project was never realized, the launch of *Amauta* in September 1926 marked the culmination and further refinement of that idea. Its Quechua title, meaning indigenous teacher or sage, was proposed by José Sabogal, the painter who also designed the journal’s graphic identity, especially the covers, as seen in this gallery. Mariátegui’s dialogue with Sabogal and Southern Andean intellectuals who promoted Indigenism further contributed to redefining his perspective on the avant-gardes. These conversations between artists, writers, and intellectuals took shape in the art reproduced in the magazine as well as the texts published within its pages. *Amauta*, anchored in Indigenism, a regional perspective, and a commitment to politics, expressed that new outlook.

    **EL NACIMIENTO DE AMAUTA** “Yo vine de Europa con el propósito de fundar una revista”. Así evocaba José Carlos Mariátegui su retorno al Perú en 1923, tras un viaje de tres años al exterior. Esta sección de la muestra explora los contactos de Mariátegui con las vanguardias europeas, las amistades que estableció en su viaje, y el proceso de desarrollo de *Amauta* como una publicación influyente. El viaje de Mariátegui definió su perspectiva sobre el arte de su tiempo. Con base en Italia y Alemania, recorrió Europa intentando comprender el curso de la cultura y de la política europea. En Italia trabó amistad con el pintor argentino Emilio Pettoruti, visitó las bienales de Roma y de Venecia, frecuentó la Casa d’Arte Bragaglia de Milán y compiló una importante colección de publicaciones sobre arte. En Berlín, se interesó por la obra del artista alemán Georg Grosz, conoció movimientos de vanguardia europeos, como el constructivismo y el dadaísmo, además de seguir de cerca las exposiciones de la galería Der Sturm. Para el momento de su regreso a Perú, Mariátegui era probablemente uno de los latinoamericanos que más ampliamente conocía el arte europeo moderno. Los primeros anuncios de la revista *Vanguardia*, que él planeaba publicar, aparecieron pocos meses después. Aunque este primer proyecto no pudo realizarse, la aparición de *Amauta* en septiembre de 1926, sería la culminación y el afinamiento de esa idea. Su título en quechua, evocando la figura del maestro o sabio indígena, fue propuesta por José Sabogal, el pintor que también definió eldiseño gráfico de la revista, sobre todo sus carátulas, como se puede ver en esta sala. El diálogo que Mariátegui estableció con Sabogal y otros intelectuales surandinos que promovían el Indigenismo, contribuyó a redefinir su perspectiva sobre las vanguardias. Estas conversaciones entre artistas, escritores, e intelectuales se articularon a través del arte reproducido en la revista y en los textos publicados en sus páginas. *Amauta*, identificada con el Indigenismo, con una perspectiva regional y comprometida con la política, fue la expression de esa nueva visión.

    Emilio Pettoruti (La Plata, Argentina, 1892 - 1971, Paris, France) *José Carlos Mariátegui*, 1921 Oil on canvas Museo de Arte de Lima, Gift of Viuda de Mariátegui e hijos S. A. © D.R. Fundación Pettoruti, www.pettoruti.com. Mariátegui and Argentine painter Emilio Pettoruti met in Milan in August 1920. Pettoruti, who had established relationships with Futurist and avant-garde circles over the previous decade, introduced Mariátegui to the contemporary art of the period. Mariátegui, in turn, initiated Pettoruti in politics. This portrait was painted in the month they spent together in Villa Frascati, near Rome, where Mariátegui and his wife Anna Chiappe were spending their honeymoon. But, “spring and the village irresistibly invited leisure,” as Mariátegui wrote, which explains why the portrait remained unfinished. The Mariátegui Archive preserves abundant correspondence related to the editing and production of *Amauta*, though a large part was lost to censorship, both in Peru and abroad. In 1929, Mariátegui estimated that practically half of his correspondence never arrived due to what he would refer to as the “postal barrier,” which suggests the intensity of his editorial work and the broad reach of his networks of exchange. His correspondents sent him photographs, essays, poems, and journals, which allowed him to keep abreast of what was happening in different cities in the Americas and Europe.

    José Sabogal Cajabamba, Peru, 1888 – Lima, Peru, 1956 *El recluta* [*Recruit*] - 1926 Oil on canvas Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, Lima © ARCHI / Daniel Giannoni (Isabel María Sabogal Dunin Borkowski) The exploitation of the indigenous population through military conscription became a central theme for Indigenist intellectuals, who denounced the unfair methods judges used to select recruits. In fact, Cuzco writer Luis Felipe Aguilar described this military practice as “one of the forms of the greatest and most iniquitous plundering of the Indian.” In 1920, the new Law of Road Conscription was added as a form of draft, forcing indigenous peoples to build roads. This compulsory labor was condemned as a new form of indigenous tribute. In Mariátegui’s view, this constituted an updating of the *mita*, which in colonial times was a form of tax paid through labor. José Sabogal’s image of an indigenous recruit entered into these debates and is one of the few works by the artist with explicit political content.

    Unknown artist Diseño de titular para la proyectada revista *Vanguardia* [Banner design for the projected magazine Vanguard]", circa 1923 Diseño de titular para *Vanguardia* [Banner design for Vanguard], circa 1923 Ink on paper Archivo José Carlos Mariátegui, Lima *Vanguardia* was an unrealized early magazine project Mariátegui developed with journalist Félix del Valle. Although the author of these designs has not been identified, they may have been created by Peruvian illustrator Arístides Vallejo, from whom Mariátegui later commissioned the logotype for Editorial Minerva, the publishing house the writer ran with his brother. Vallejo’s failure to complete that commission led to Emilio Goyburu finally designing Minerva’s logo.