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    Aimée Duvivier Active in Paris, France, 1786–1824 *Armand Louis Le Boulanger, Marquis d’Acqueville*, circa 1796 Oil on canvas Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Clark W. Thompson, Sr., 1964 Dressed in a dark blue coat, bluish gray breeches, and a pale yellow waistcoat with poppy design, Armand Louis Le Boulanger, Marquis d’Acqueville (1757–1825) presents himself as a fashionable young aristocrat. Proudly displayed on the lapel of his coat is the medal of the order of Saint Louis, which he was awarded in 1796 for his service as an infantry officer. The bust sculpture of a classical figure, the rolled-up musical score, and the quill pen in the inkwell suggest that he wished to be seen as a man of letters as well. An accomplished portrait painter, Aimée Duvivier was among the few women selected to show their work at official exhibitions organized by the French Academy in the late eighteenth century. Click here for a transcript of the audio stop: https://bit.ly/BlantonEuro360WhoseFace

    Marco Benefial Rome, Italy, 1684–1764 *Portrait of a Lady with a Dog*, 1730s Oil on canvas The Suida-Manning Collection

    Rosalba Carriera Venice, Italy, 1675–1757 *Portrait of a Lady as Queen Berenice II of Egypt*, circa 1741 Oil on canvas The Suida-Manning Collection This *Portrait of a Lady as Queen Berenice II* was created by the famed woman painter Rosalba Carriera, who is still considered one of the most successful women artists of all time. Born in Venice, Italy in 1657, Carriera began expressing herself in art by making lace patterns for her mother, who was a lace maker in Venice’s once-prominent but then-failing lace economy. To make extra money for her family, Carriera began painting the inside lids of snuff boxes, or tobacco containers. But Carriera soon realized that she could turn these snuff boxes into luxury objects by painting onto ivory. By doing so, Carriera elevated the snuff box genre, and her popularity was cemented. She continued to produce painted and pastel portraits throughout her life for the aristocratic class in both Italy, and later in France. There, she inspired and broke ground for the generation of female artists who came after her, which included women like Adélaide Labille Guillard and Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun. Click here for a transcript of the audio stop: https://bit.ly/BlantonEuro360QueenBereniceII

    Giacomo Ceruti (Il Pitocchetto Milan, Italy, 1698 –1767 *Young Peasant Woman Holding a Wine Flask*, circa 1737–38 Oil on canvas The Suida-Manning Collection Giacomo Ceruti specialized in portraiture, depicting both conventional sitters and anonymous subjects from the periphery of society. This painting exemplifies the latter. Employing the visual idioms typically reserved for the portraits of the upper class, the artist bestows individuality and dignity on the peasant woman, her simple garments, and heavy hands. Her unaffected, confident gaze and pose anticipate the egalitarian spirit of the next century.

    Francesco Curradi Florence, Italy, 1570 –1661 *Portrait of a Man*, circa 1625–50 Oil on canvas The Suida-Manning Collection Judging from the sitter’s dress—a collar with lace trim and a hairstyle of loose curls—we can date this painting between 1625 and 1650, about when both these styles were in fashion. Flat collars would be replaced by the neckcloth, a strip of lace or muslin twisted around the neck and tied at the throat. In the latter half of the century, natural hair would be traded for wigs. Francesco Curradi, a Florentine draftsman and painter, appears to have reused this sitter’s face for figures in other paintings, including the archangel Michael in the *Vision of Saint Philip Benizi* at the church of Santa Maria dei Servi in Siena. When viewed under ultraviolet light, the painting shows signs of retouching, particularly in the sitter’s original lace collar, which was likely enhanced after losses from age and cleaning.

    Sebastiano del Piombo Probably Venice, circa 1485 – Rome, Italy, 1547 *Portrait of a Man*, circa 1516 Oil on wood panel The Suida-Manning Collection Although no information on the sitter exists, the individualized facial features and contemporary dress indicate that this is a portrait. The painting was not, however, originally of this size and format. Examination of the panel shows that it was cut down from a much larger composition and later balanced with the addition of a narrow strip along the right side. It is possible that the original painting represented the sitter in three-quarter length against a dark green background, not unlike the *Portrait of a Humanist* from around 1520. One of the most celebrated painters of the Italian Renaissance, Sebastiano del Piombo combined the resplendent colors characteristic of Venetian painting with clear modeling of form prized by central Italian artists. Applied to portraiture, this combination resulted in a particularly moving likeness of an individual.

    Carlo Ceresa San Giovanni Bianco, Italy, 1609 – Bergamo, Italy, 1679 *Portrait of a Widow*, circa 1640 Oil on canvas The Suida-Manning Collection

    **From Plaza to Palace: Portraits and Scenes from Everyday Life, 1500–1800** From the sixteenth to the nineteenth century, paintings were ranked according to their subject matter and the intellectual effort involved in making them. History painting, which dealt with classical history and literature, mythology, and biblical stories, was regarded as the most important. Portraits and genre scenes, or scenes from everyday life, came next, ranking just above landscapes and still-life painting. Although not considered a prestigious type of art, genre scenes were hugely popular in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Depictions of marketplaces, parties, and festivities gained favor because they reflected the reality the viewer lived in. Another form of painting that mirrored society was the portrait. Once reserved for royalty and nobility, portraiture had been “democratized” since the sixteenth century. As the Italian Renaissance writer Pietro Aretino lamented, “even butchers and tailors” sat for portraits. The growing desire to make and enjoy faithful copies of the real world also resulted in imagined likenesses of people from the lower strata of society, blurring the boundary between portraiture and genre painting.

    **De la plaza al palacio: Retratos y escenas de la vida cotidiana, 1500–1800** Entre el siglo XVI y el siglo XIX, las pinturas se calificaban según los temas y el esfuerzo intelectual que requería su ejecución. La pintura histórica, que representaba la literatura y la historia clásicas, la mitología y episodios bíblicos, se consideraba como la más importante. El retrato y las escenas de género, o escenas de la vida cotidiana, le seguían en prestigio, y eran valoradas un poco más que el paisaje y la naturaleza muerta. Si bien las escenas de género no se consideraban como un tipo de arte de gran prestigio, eran inmensamente populares en los siglos XVII y XVIII. Representaciones de mercados, reuniones y fiestas ganaron notoriedad debido a que reflejaban la realidad que vivía el espectador. Otra forma de pintura que reflejaba la sociedad era el retrato. Antaño reservado para la realeza y la nobleza, el retrato se “democratizó” a partir del siglo XVI. Desde entonces, tal como el escritor italiano del Renacimiento Pietro Aretino lamenta, “incluso carniceros y sastres” posaban para ser retratados. El creciente deseo de realizar y disfrutar de copias fidedignas de la realidad también trajo como consecuencia la confección de retratos imaginarios de gentes de las clases más bajas, desdibujando los límites entre el retrato y la pintura de género.

    Randolph Rogers Waterloo, New York, 1825 – Rome, Italy, 1892 *The Truant*, 1857 Marble Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Herbert M. and Mary Jo Loyd, 2014 Holding firmly to a tree stump with his left hand, a boy cautiously steps forward onto the frozen surface of a body of water to begin to skate. Next to his school books, carelessly dropped behind him, is a small footprint with a slit in the middle, a trace left by the boy’s skate, suggesting soft snow-covered ground. Capturing a tender moment in childhood based on his observation, Randolph Rogers’ work also refers to ancient Greek and Roman art. The triangular composition formed by the figure’s posture, leaning back with most of his weight on one foot, can be compared with that of the ancient Roman marble, *Boy Wrestling with Goose* (Capitoline Museums, Rome), which Rogers likely saw. The inspiration from classical art is evident also in the delicately carved face and hands, the undulating drapery, and the use of white Carrara marble. Neoclassical style was encouraged in European and American academies in the nineteenth century. Active primarily in Rome, where he made this sculpture, Rogers was a proponent of this style. His idealized interpretation of themes from everyday life, mythology, history, and religion earned the artist fame and brought him important commissions for public monuments in the United States as well as critical recognition in Italy. He was in fact the first American to be appointed academician of merit and professor of sculpture by the Accademia di San Luca in Rome, the prestigious art academy established in the Renaissance. Signed and dated on the side of the base, this work is one of four versions of the same composition by the artist.